When
speaking of the strength of materials one would be talking about the behavior
of solid objects that are subject to stress or strain. The study of strength of
materials refers to the various methods of testing the stresses and strains of
materials to determine variables such as length, width, thickness, boundary
constraints and change in geometric structure.
Technically
speaking, the strength of a material is the material’s ability to withstand an
applied load or force without failure. The stresses acting on the materials
cause deformation or strain on the material in various ways.
By definition, Material strength refers to the point on the
engineering stress–strain curve in which the material experiences deformations
that cannot be completely reversed and as a result will have a permanent
deflection.
Basic types of
Stress:
- Tensile Stress: when the specimen suffers stretching or elongation.
- Compressive Stress: when the specimen suffers from shortening.
- Volumetric Stress: produces a change in the volume of the body without producing any distortion to the shape of the specimen.
- Shear Stress: stress resulting from the application of opposing forces parallel to a cross-sectional area of a body.
Basic types of
Strain:
- Linear Strain: the ratio of the change in length of the body due to the deformation to its original length in the direction of the force.
- Lateral Strain: the ratio of the change in length (breadth of a rectangular bar or diameter of a circular bar) of the body due to the deformation to its original in the direction perpendicular to the force.
- Volumetric Strain: the ratio of the change in volume of the body to the deformation to its original volume.
- Shear Strain: the strain accompanying a shearing action or the application of apposing forces parallel to the specimen’s surface.
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